Ancho- The most popular dried pepper, anchos are simply dried poblanos (the pepper used for chilies rellenos). They add a deep fruity flavor and are used in Mexican sauces.
Chipotle- The perfect go-to for adding a warm smokey flavor, chipotle are smoke dried jalapeños. They are wonderful in Mexican sauces, soups and stews.
Chili Powder- Chili Powder is actually a blend of hot dried red chilis, paprika, cumin and other seasonings that is perfect for that chili con carne flavor.
Cayenne- If you want to add heat, cayenne is a perfect choice. The red powder adds a beautiful color and some serious burn.